Injected (The Oathtaker Trials Book 1)

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By virtue of this exception a party who seeks recovery of damages for a physical, mental or emotional injury waives the privilege for purposes of that action only and to the extent that he or she has put his or her physical, mental or emotional condition in issue by his or her pleadings. With respect to any aspect of the party's physical, mental or emotional condition not put in issue by his or her pleadings, the privilege remains in full force and effect. Rules of Evidence by their definition govern the admissibility of evidence at trial.

Subdivision f is not a procedural rule and cannot be used as such. A communication is "confidential" if a person makes it privately to the person's spouse and does not intend its disclosure to any other person. A person has a privilege to prevent the person's current or former spouse from testifying in a civil or criminal case about any confidential communication between them.

Either spouse may claim the privilege. A spouse has authority to claim the privilege on the other spouse's behalf. The privilege does not apply: 1 in a civil case between the spouses; or 2 in a criminal case when one spouse is charged with a crime against: A the person of a minor child; or B the person or property of: i the other spouse; ii a resident of either spouse's household; or iii a third person when committed during a crime against any person described in paragraphs d 1 and 2.

There are two areas of law which govern if and when one spouse may testify against the other, spousal competency and marital privilege. On the other hand, marital privilege protects certain communications made during the marriage. The privilege extends only to communications which were intended to be confidential.

Thus, the presence of another person, even a family member, is deemed to mean that the communication was not intended to be confidential. Likewise, if the intent was that the communication would be confidential, a third party may not testify regarding the communication, even if that third party learned it from one of the spouses directly.

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Rule a is in accord with existing Mississippi practice. In this rule: 1 "Clergy member" means a minister, priest, rabbi, or other similar functionary of a church, religious organization, or religious denomination. A person has a privilege to refuse to disclose - and to prevent others from disclosing - a confidential communication made by the person to a clergy member as spiritual adviser. A clergy member's secretary, stenographer, or clerk must not be examined about any fact learned in that capacity without the clergy member's consent.

Rule is a restatement of M. The definition of a "clergyman" is broad but workable. It is fair to say that the term refers to clergy who are regularly engaged in activities of established denominations. It is not broad enough to include all sorts of "self-denominated ministers.

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Rule , like M. The clergyman must consent before his employee may testify about the communication, but it would seem that his consent is meaningless if the penitent has not already waived the privilege. Every person is competent to be a witness, except as provided in subdivisions b and c.

If one spouse is a party, the other spouse may not testify as a witness in the case unless both consent, except: 1 when called as a witness by the spouse who is a party; 2 in a controversy between them; or 3 in a criminal case for: A a criminal act against a child; B contributing to the neglect or delinquency of a child; C desertion or nonsupport of a child under 16; and D abandonment of a child.

When the court - as required by law - appoints a person to make an appraisal for the immediate possession of property in an eminent domain case: 1 the appraiser may not testify as a witness in the trial of the case; and 2 the appraiser's report is not admissible in evidence during the trial.

The Rule has been restructured, using an additional subdivision and more paragraphs and subparagraphs.

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This rule sets out the special provisions which render certain persons incompetent to testify. As originally written Rule excepted two classes from competency, spouses pursuant to M. Rule was subsequently amended in to delete statutory references. Subdivision b retains the substance of superseded M. Former subdivision b retained the substance of superceded M.

In Fuselier v. A witness previously convicted of perjury or subornation of perjury is now competent as a witness and the fact of such a prior conviction will be available for impeachment of the witness under Rule a 2. Subdivision c reflects the substance of a prior amendment to Rule made by the Mississippi Supreme Court in Hudspeth v. State Highway Commission of Mississippi , So. The Hudspeth amendment excepted from competency court appointed experts in eminent domain proceedings.

The Hudspeth amendment, which was made retroactive to January 1, , specifically referred to the provisions of then existing M. Subdivision c reflects the substance of the Hudspeth amendment but deletes any statutory reference.

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A witness may testify to a matter only if evidence is introduced sufficient to support a finding that the witness has personal knowledge of the matter. Evidence to prove personal knowledge may consist of the witness's own testimony. This rule does not apply to a witness's expert testimony under Rule Rule states existing practice. A person must have personal knowledge of the matter as opposed to a mere opinion, in order to testify.

See Dennis v. Prisock , So. Normally the witness himself will supply the necessary foundation showing that he has personal knowledge. Rule does not prevent, however, the witness from testifying about hearsay statements. He need only show that he has personal knowledge regarding the making of the statements. He cannot testify about the subject matter contained in the hearsay statement. When he is testifying with regard to hearsay statements, Rules and are applicable.

Before testifying, a witness must give an oath or affirmation to testify truthfully. It must be in a form designed to impress that duty on the witness's conscience.

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Rule is consistent with M. The policy behind allowing an affirmation in lieu of an oath is to refrain from offending religious persons who oppose oath-taking, atheists, and children who are too young to comprehend the meaning of an oath, among others. The affirmer as well as the oath-taker are equally subject to perjury charges under M. An interpreter must be qualified and must give an oath or affirmation to make a true translation. This rule should be read in conjunction with M.

The presiding judge may not testify as a witness at the trial. A party need not object to preserve the issue. A juror may not testify as a witness before the other jurors at the trial. If a juror is called to testify, the court must give a party an opportunity to object outside the jury's presence.

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During an inquiry into the validity of a verdict or indictment, a juror may not testify about any statement made or incident that occurred during the jury's deliberations; the effect of anything on that juror's or another juror's vote; or any juror's mental processes concerning the verdict or indictment. The court may not receive a juror's affidavit or evidence of a juror's statement on these matters. A juror may testify about whether: A extraneous prejudicial information was improperly brought to the jury's attention; or B an outside influence was improperly brought to bear on any juror.

Rule a disqualifies a juror from taking the witness stand during the trial of the case in which the juror is sitting. Of course, calling a juror as a witness will be rare; voir dire will generally expose a juror's knowledge of facts relevant to a case and result in disqualification of the juror for cause. Rule b is designed to protect all "components of [a jury's] deliberations, including arguments, statements, discussions, mental and emotional reactions, votes and any other feature of the process.

Thus testimony or affidavits of jurors is incompetent to show a compromise verdict, a quotient verdict, misinterpretation of instructions, and the like. Entergy Mississippi , Inc. John , So. Goodman , So. Bellwood Farms , Inc. This broad rule of exclusion ensures jurors "freedom of deliberation, stability and finality of verdicts, and protection of jurors against annoyance and embarrassment.

Rule b does not purport to set forth the substantive grounds for setting aside verdicts because of an irregularity. Even when grounds are alleged to exist, there is a "general reluctance after verdict to haul in and probe jurors for potential instances of bias, misconduct or extraneous influences. Clarksdale Beverage Co. At the least, a party needs to show "a specific, non-speculative impropriety has occurred," and the trial court must supervise any post-trial investigation to "ensure that jurors are protected from harassment and to guard against inquiry into subjects beyond which a juror is competent to testify.

When jurors are permitted to testify about objective facts not of record and about outside influences, they may not be questioned about the effect upon them of what was improperly brought to their attention. In narrowly prescribed circumstances, Mississippi permits the correction of clerical errors in the verdict, notwithstanding Rule b. See Martin v. Such an allegation of clerical error did "not challenge the "validity" of the verdict or the deliberation or mental process of the jurors. Errors that come to light after polling the jury "may be corrected on the spot, or the jury may be sent out to continue deliberations, or, if necessary, a new trial may be ordered.

Kirkpatrick, Evidence Under the Rules at 2d ed. United States , F. Any party, including the party that called the witness, may attack the witness's credibility. Rule is a repudiation of the old voucher rule. With regard to civil cases the voucher rule was previously eliminated by former M. Former M. Rule now repudiates the voucher rule in both civil and criminal cases. A witness's credibility may be attacked or supported by testimony about the witness's reputation for having a character for truthfulness or untruthfulness, or by testimony in the form of an opinion about that character.

But evidence of truthful character is admissible only after the witness's character for truthfulness has been attacked. Except for a criminal conviction under Rule , extrinsic evidence is not admissible to prove specific instances of a witness's conduct in order to attack or support the witness's character for truthfulness. But the court may, on cross-examination, allow them to be inquired into if they are probative of the character for truthfulness or untruthfulness of: 1 the witness; or 2 another witness whose character the witness being cross-examined has testified about.

By testifying on another matter, a witness does not waive any privilege against self-incrimination for testimony that relates only to the witness's character for truthfulness. Rule 's limitation of bad-act impeachment to "cross-examination" is trumped by Rule , which allows a party to impeach witnesses on direct examination.

Courts have not relied on the term "on cross-examination" to limit impeachment that would otherwise be permissible under Rules and Therefore, no change to the language of the Rule was necessary in the context of a restyling project. Rule is concerned with character evidence of witnesses. Rule a prohibits the use of character evidence to prove conformity of conduct, but with some exceptions.